Roman bridges

Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as the basic structure (see arch bridge). Most utilized concrete as well, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges.

In the history of civilization, arched masonry bridges represent, from a historical point of view, the most important category for the quantity of achievements and the diffusion in various geographical areas, testify to posterity the design systems adopted by the various peoples, the technologies in use at the time of construction, methods of transport and communication, history and culture and, in any case, always hand down a masterpiece of human creative genius.
The first masonry arch bridges were found in Mesopotamia (around the 4th millennium BC) and later in Egypt and Persia. Also in Greece stone arch bridges were built, generally of modest size and with a single arch.

The Romans were the true masters of the execution of arched bridges, even if their first bridges were made of wood, like the Sublicio Bridge over the Tiber, which, besides guaranteeing the connection with the right bank of the river, constituted a valid element of defense as it could be dismantled in dangerous conditions.
The first stone bridge built by the Romans is the bridge that called Emilio. It underwent numerous destructions and was rebuilt the last time by Gregory XIII in 1575, which wanted to maintain the severity and primitive grandeur. The reconstruction did not have much luck because already in 1598 two arches fell, since then the bridge was called “Broken”. The only arch now surviving is sufficient to give vision of what was the strength and beauty of the bridge.

 

As with the vault and the dome the Romans were the first to fully realize the potential of arches for bridge construction.

Construction techniques
The Roman bridges are characterized by the almost exclusive use of the round arch, probably because this was the simplest form of construction to be made: in fact, for an arch of constant thickness, each stone (constitutive portion of the arch) in stone or in bricks – linked in some way with pozzolanic cement… pozzolana – it is delimited by two concentric circles and two contiguous beams, all coming out from a single center, so that all the segments are equal to each other.

The construction of the vault requires a circular rib (with a radius equal to that of the intrados of the arch), easily constructed and adjustable by the carpenters, on which the individual segments were placed in sequence. The rib could be placed directly on the ground, or fixed on the graft point of the vault; this last solution, useful for saving wood, was widely adopted by the Romans, who for this purpose prepared protrusions at the level of the last horizontal row, on which the ribs were installed.

 

These techniques remained almost unchanged over the centuries until the introduction of steel tubes.

Presented by Romano Pisciotti

ITALMOTOR Ltd. Nigeria

 

Volcano Gin

It/Eng.version

That Etna is naturally suited to the production of excellent wines is now well known but that from the “muntagna” could also come out a gin from the scents of herbs typical of its soil, few would have expected it.

Che l’Etna sia naturalmente vocato alla produzione di ottimi vini è cosa ormai ben nota ma che dalla “muntagna” potesse venir fuori anche un gin dai profumi delle erbe tipiche del suo terreno, in pochi se lo sarebbero aspettato. (più sotto continua la versione italiana)

It took three young Etna fans to make this happen and “Volcano Gin” became a reality.

(Alessandro Malfitana, Diego Pollicina e Stefano Lo Giudice –

ph Miriam Vecchio)

The idea was conceived by Alessandro Malfitana, sommelier of the San Domenico Palace of Taormina, who returned to Sicily after seven years in London, a putative mother with the whole of England. And it is during a walk on his beloved mountain with his friends Diego Pollicina and Stefano Lo Giudice, the latter sommelier of Villa Neri Resort in Linguaglossa, still in the province of Catania, which three years ago takes shape the project to bottle the intoxicating scents of that spring afternoon. It is here, in fact, among the Etnean skiing, that the juniper, botanical reference of this distillate, grows spontaneously and it is here that the three young ambitious boys in love with their territory decide to start their start up.

 

The desire to make Etna known, not only as an enogastronomically winning territory, but also as the home of a high quality gin pushes them. In fact, unlike the high mountain of northern Italy, here juniper assumes a mineral vein that gives it cleanliness and great freshness, thanks to the volcanic soil in which it grows and feeds from. Hence the desire to create a unique product that represents the many facets of a territory rich in a new look never experienced in Sicily.

 

 

Ci sono voluti tre giovani etnei appassionati perché tutto ciò potesse accadere e “Volcano Gin” diventasse una realtà. L’idea viene concepita da Alessandro Malfitana, sommelier del San Domenico Palace di Taormina, tornato in Sicilia dopo 7 anni a Londra, madre putativa con l’Inghilterra tutta del gin. Ed è proprio durante una passeggiata sulla sua amata montagna insieme agli amici Diego Pollicina e Stefano Lo Giudice, quest’ultimo sommelier di Villa Neri Resort di Linguaglossa sempre in provincia di Catania, che tre anni fa prende forma il progetto di imbottigliare gli inebrianti profumi di quel primaverile pomeriggio. È qui, infatti, tra le sciare etnee, che il ginepro, botanico di riferimento di questo distillato, cresce spontaneo ed è qui che i tre giovani ambiziosi ragazzi innamorati del proprio territorio decidono di avviare la loro start up. Li spinge il desiderio di rendere noto l’Etna, non solo come territorio enogastronomicamente vincente, ma anche come patria di un gin di alta qualità. A differenza di quello di alta montagna del Nord Italia, infatti, qui il ginepro assume una vena minerale che gli conferisce pulizia e grande freschezza, grazie al suolo vulcanico in cui cresce a da cui si nutre. Da qui la volontà di creare un prodotto unico che rappresenti le tante sfaccettature di un territorio ricco in una nuova veste mai sperimentata in Sicilia….

di Stefania Petrotta

HELLO SICILY – AURORA VIEW RESORT 1

Presented by Romano Pisciotti

Human Robot

It/Eng.version

Globally aging populations and demographic changes will require new, innovative, and sympathetic approaches to all aspects of human life. Within this context, robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have great potential to assist, augment, and empower humans. Advanced robots will not be confined to factories and manufacturing tasks. Rather, they will leave laboratories to help us in daily life. In addition AI-enabled robots will assist us in our personal lives (assistive technologies for the elderly and in healthcare), manage and improve safety in hazardous environments (safeguarding human life), and enhance medical treatment (improving quality of life). The Robotics Research Domain has five Priorities: Mechatronics, Soft Robotics, Social Cognition and Human Robot Interaction, Biomedical Robotics, and Intelligent Companion Robots. Some of these Priorities have a thematic character (Social Cognition and Human Robot Interaction, Intelligent Companion Robots), while others have a more technological nature (Mechatronics, Soft Robotics). However, they are all strongly focused on applications, often in connection with the other Research Domains (e.g., new materials for robotics, machine learning, biomedical applications).

 

L’invecchiamento globale delle popolazioni e i cambiamenti demografici richiederanno approcci nuovi, innovativi e comprensivi a tutti gli aspetti della vita umana. In questo contesto, la robotica e l’Intelligenza Artificiale (AI) hanno un grande potenziale per assistere, aumentare e potenziare gli umani. I robot avanzati non saranno limitati alle fabbriche e alle attività di produzione. Piuttosto, lasceranno i laboratori per aiutarci nella vita quotidiana. Inoltre i robot abilitati all’intelligenza artificiale ci assisteranno nelle nostre vite personali (tecnologie assistive per gli anziani e nel settore sanitario), gestiranno e miglioreranno la sicurezza in ambienti pericolosi (salvaguardando la vita umana) e miglioreranno le cure mediche (migliorando la qualità della vita). Il dominio di ricerca sulla robotica ha cinque priorità: meccatronica, robotica morbida, cognizione sociale e interazione uomo-robot, robotica biomedica e robot intelligenti compagne. Alcune di queste Priorità hanno un carattere tematico (Cognizione Sociale e Interazione Robot Umano, Robot Intelligente Companion), mentre altre hanno una natura più tecnologica (Meccatronica, Robotica Soft). Tuttavia, sono tutti fortemente focalizzati sulle applicazioni, spesso in connessione con gli altri domini di ricerca (ad esempio, nuovi materiali per la robotica, l’apprendimento automatico, le applicazioni biomediche).

Romano Pisciotti, ITALMOTOR: LIKE

Aquaplaning

It/Eng.version

…In addition to an inevitable algorithm that establishes how to operate the device, there are a high pressure pump and two injectors placed in front of the front wheels. The algorithm, even without the aid of specific sensors, arranges the activation of the technology on the basis of the different situations and also evaluates the type of loss of adhesion. In fractions of a second it activates the pump which activates the high pressure water jet from the injectors, to remove excess water in front of the tires.

…..Oltre ad un inevitabile algoritmo che stabilisce le modalità di entrata in funzione del dispositivo, ci sono una pompa ad alta pressione e due iniettori collocati davanti alle ruote anteriori. L’algoritmo, anche senza l’ausilio di sensori specifici, dispone l’attivazione della tecnologia sulla base delle diverse situazioni e valuta anche il tipo di perdita di aderenza. In frazioni di secondo attiva la pompa che attiva il getto d’acqua ad alta pressione dagli iniettori, per rimuove l’acqua in eccesso davanti gli pneumatici.

continua a leggere……

 

Raccomandato da Romano Pisciotti

The “Littorina”

It/Eng.version

Around 1930 a new type of trains appeared all over Europe: self-propelled railcars powered by liquid fuel, consisting of a single unit with an open interior including the driver’s seat. The German Schienenbus looked like a bus that was put on the rails. In Italy, a car manufacturer took this concept to a higher level. The Fiat automotrici were modern, efficient and beautifully designed.

The Littorina can be regarded as a co-production of Mussolini and Fiat president Agnelli. The new train type helped achieve Mussolini’s political goals, proudly carrying the symbol of his fascist party on its front. Agnelli was able to realize his ambitions for Fiat’s railway division — as far as in Africa.

by Arjan den Boer

 

 

Even today, for many Italians who are no longer very young, the “Littorina” is that small brown train, very similar to a coach, which was driven like a truck and that ran quickly between the valleys, the mountains and the thousand, small, stations of the Italian province.
This was precisely the key to the popular success of this train in the late 1930s. With this means, on many lines, the expensive and heavy steam traction could be eliminated, gaining speed, flexibility of use and economy of operation. Furthermore, the Italian mechanical engineering industry was well prepared and equipped for the production of light vehicles with internal combustion and the railway administration was very interested in the development of this type of rolling stock.
In short, everything contributed to the rapid realization of a consolidated national design of this strange train, very similar to the buses of the time, of which many small details were also reused.
The first light railcar built for the FS, the legendary Alb 48 petrol, entered into operation on the Cerignola-Campagna-Cerignola line in 1933 and the success was immediate: elegant, light, equipped with comfortable body and provided with numerous windows, able to reach 110 km / h on the plain and be able to proceed in both directions. As soon as the trial period ended, about sixty of these railcars were used on the FS lines and many other types of diesel railcars were developed by the national industry for the FS, which built a specific Officina Motori for the maintenance of these vehicles in Florence.

It was only a stage of the prestigious evolution of these rail vehicles in Italy, a path that will take the FS to the first places in the world in this particular sector of railway traction. At the beginning of 1940 over 800 railcars of various types covered the Italian lines.

Ancora oggi, per molti italiani non più giovanissimi, la “Littorina” è quel piccolo treno marrone, molto simile ad un pullman, che si guidava come un camion e che correva veloce tra le valli, le montagne e le mille, piccole, stazioni della provincia italiana.

Proprio questa fu la chiave del successo popolare di questo treno alla fine degli anni ‘30. Con questo mezzo, su molte linee, si riusciva ad eliminare la costosa e pesante trazione a vapore guadagnando in velocità, flessibilità di impiego ed economia di esercizio. Inoltre l’industria meccanica italiana era ben preparata ed attrezzata per la produzione di mezzi di trasporto leggeri a combustione interna e l’amministrazione ferroviaria nutriva molto interesse per lo sviluppo di rotabili di questo tipo.

Tutto concorse, insomma, alla rapida realizzazione di una progettazione nazionale consolidata di questo strano trenino, molto simile agli autobus dell’epoca, dei quali venivano riutilizzati anche molti piccoli particolari.

Le prime automotrici leggere costruite per le FS, le mitiche Alb 48 a benzina, entrarono in esercizio sulla linea Cerignola-Campagna-Cerignola nel 1933 ed il successo fu immediato: eleganti, leggere, fornite di carrozzeria comoda e provviste di numerose finestre, capaci di raggiungere in pianura i 110 Km/h ed atte a procedere indifferentemente nei due sensi di marcia. Non appena terminato il periodo di prova una sessantina di queste automotrici fu impiegato sulle linee FS e numerosi altri tipi di automotrici diesel  furono sviluppate dall’industria nazionale per le FS che realizzarono a Firenze una specifica Officina Motori per la manutenzione di questi mezzi.

Era solo una tappa della prestigiosa evoluzione di questi mezzi ferroviari in Italia, un percorso che porterà le FS ai primi posti nel mondo in questo particolare settore della trazione ferroviaria. All’inizio del 1940 oltre 800 automotrici di vario tipo percorrevano le linee italiane.

1933 Littorina

Presented by Romano Pisciotti

Progetto Zero – Project Zero

It/Eng.version

Il Progetto Zero di Agusta

Progetto Zero is an entirely electric aircraft capable of lifting vertically like a helicopter

Progetto Zero è un velivolo interamente elettrico capace di sollevarsi in verticale come un elicottero

This is an entirely electric aircraft capable of lifting vertically like a helicopter thanks to two large intubated propellers which, once in the air, rotate 90 degrees allowing it to run horizontally like an airplane. This technology is an evolution of a knowledge gained with the construction of the AW 619 convertiplane that Agusta Westland is testing for civil transport. But with Project Zero we go, in fact, over running everything with electricity and not with traditional engines.

Si tratta di un velivolo interamente elettrico capace di sollevarsi in verticale come un elicottero grazie a due grandi eliche intubate che, una volta nell’aria, ruotano di 90 gradi permettendo di procedere in orizzontale come un aeroplano. Questa tecnologia è un’evoluzione di una conoscenza maturata con la costruzione del convertiplano AW 619 che Agusta Westland sta collaudando per il trasporto civile. Ma con il Progetto Zero si va, appunto, oltre facendo funzionare tutto con l’elettricità e non con motori tradizionali.

The other innovative aspects concern the ability to self-manage alone in flight (it has radar altimeter, Gps and self-governing systems) and is built with criteria of great simplicity as well as having lightweight structures in composite materials. Other applied solutions concern the eco-compatibility: its silence is a record. Of this aircraft with the vague forms of science fiction curated by Stile Bertone, the first phase of testing has now been concluded, demonstrating the effectiveness of the choices made.

Gli altri aspetti innovativi riguardano la capacità di autogestirsi da solo in volo (ha radar altimetro, Gps e sistemi di autogoverno) ed è costruito con criteri di grande semplicità oltre ad avere strutture leggerissime in materiali compositi. Altre soluzioni applicate riguardano poi l’eco-compatibilità: la sua silenziosità è da record. Di questo velivolo dalle vaghe forme quasi da fantascienza curate da Stile Bertone, si è conclusa ora la prima fase di test dimostrando l’efficacia delle scelte compiute.

Il progetto è frutto di un investimento della società che ha coinvolto quindici società fornitrici di varie parti e conoscenze, quattro delle quali sono straniere (Giappone, Usa, Gran Bretagna). Le altre sono tutte italiane, la maggior parte del gruppo Finmeccanica come Selex Es che ha costruito il cervello di guida. Altre provengono da campi diversi (automobili e motociclette) e che ora hanno portato anche metodi diversi nel sofisticato mondo aeronautico soprattutto nell’ottica di tagliare i costi. Progetto Zero è un efficace piano di ricerca tecnologica che potrà essere prezioso per sostenere una capacità italiana nel settore e mantenerla a quel livello di competitività internazionale che oggi detiene.

 

The project is the result of an investment by the company that involved fifteen companies supplying various parts and knowledge, four of which are foreign (Japan, USA, Great Britain). The others are all Italian, most of the Finmeccanica group like Selex Es who built the driving brain. Others come from different fields (cars and motorcycles) and now they have also brought different methods to the sophisticated aeronautical world, especially with a view to cutting costs. Progetto Zero is an effective technological research plan that can be valuable to support an Italian capacity in the sector and keep it at the level of international competitiveness it holds today. 

 

Romano Pisciotti: LIKE

(ITALMOTOR)

Il Grattacielo Pirelli

l grattacielo Pirelli progettato dall’architetto Gio Ponti nel 1950 e inaugurato nel 1960, con i suoi 127 metri d’altezza distribuiti su 31 piani, le linee essenziali e un’architettura tanto imponente quanto leggera, è uno degli edifici in cemento armato più alti al mondo.

The Pirelli skyscraper designed by architect Gio Ponti in 1950 and inaugurated in 1960, with its 127 meters of height distributed over 31 floors, the essential lines and an architecture as impressive as it is light, is one of the tallest reinforced concrete buildings in the world.

La torre fu costruita su commissione del gruppo Pirelli, che voleva trasferire gli uffici di viale Abruzzi in un edificio rappresentativo e strategico, vicino alla Stazione Centrale e nel nascente centro direzionale di via Vittor Pisani. L’area era quella un tempo occupata dalla Cascina Brusada, proprio di fronte al primo insediamento della fabbrica di gomma trasferita in Bicocca nel 1909. Furono Piero e Alberto Pirelli (nelle foto con Leopoldo) a volere la nuova sede rappresentativa del gruppo che venne inaugurata il 4 aprile 1960, ospitava 2mila persone, fra 1.200 dipendenti dell’azienda e uffici di terzi. Ben presto il Pirellone divenne simbolo della ricostruzione e del miracolo economico postbellico italiano.

The tower was commissioned by the Pirelli group, who wanted to transfer the offices of viale Abruzzi in a representative and strategic building, close to the Central Station and in the emerging business center of via Vittor Pisani. The area was once occupied by Cascina Brusada, right in front of the first settlement of the rubber factory moved to Bicocca in 1909. It was Piero and Alberto Pirelli (pictured with Leopoldo) to want the new representative seat of the group that was inaugurated on 4 April 1960, it housed 2 thousand people, including 1,200 company employees and third-party offices. Soon the Pirellone became a symbol of the reconstruction and the Italian post-war economic miracle.

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ss/Leonardo da Vinci

The Italian ship Leonardo da Vinci 

The Leonardo da Vinci was a passenger ship of Italy – Genoa Navigation Company , a company belonging to the group IRI – Finmare , better known in the world of international shipping as the Italian Line

 

The ship, built in shipyard Ansaldo Sestri Ponente, with construction number 1550, was launched December 7, 1958 and godmother of the launch was Mrs. Carla Bissatini, wife of Giovanni Gronchi, third President of the Italian Republic.

Leonardo da Vinci

The “Leonardo da Vinci” was eleven bridges connected by twenty-one lifts, could accommodate 1326 passengers and had five pools, two of them for children. The first class pool had an infrared heater to make its use possible in the winter season.

The onboard facilities including a hospital with an operating room, radiology laboratory, gynecological clinic, gym and rooms for physiotherapy, three barber shops, a teletype for the televised edition printing of the Corriere della Sera, an auditorium with 300 seats , a chapel, a playground for children.

For electrical services on board the ship had four generators, able to illuminate a city of 150,000 inhabitants. also it possessed a seawater desalination plant capable of producing 700,000 liters.

The Leonardo da Vinci was a particularly luxurious and fast ship, very finely decorated and extremely innovative features.

It was the first ship class cabins all with private facilities, air conditioning in all rooms, four retractable stabilizer fins on the hull and twin engines, with a single power unit dedicated to each of the two propellers, a feature normally reserved for military ships.

Presented by Romano Pisciotti, ITALMOTOR